Compartment Syndrome

Compartment syndrome is a serious condition that involves increased pressure in a muscle compartment and can lead to muscle and nerve damage and problems with blood flow. It can be caused by fractures, crush injury, burns or other trauma or repetitive activities, such as running. Compartment syndrome is most common...

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Epinephrine Administration for Anaphylaxis

OVERVIEW OF ANAPHYLAXIS Anaphylaxis is an allergic reaction that has life-endangering effects on the circulatory and respiratory systems. Anaphylaxis is an almost immediate, rapidly progressive multi-system allergic reaction to a foreign protein injected into the body by stinging and biting insects, snakes, and sea creatures or ingestion or inhalation of...

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Syncope (Fainting)

Syncope (fainting) is a brief loss of postural tone followed by a spontaneous and complete recovery. It is often caused by a decreased blood flow to the brain, usually from low blood pressure. It may be due to severe pain, strong emotion, urination, defecation, vomiting, swallowing, or carotid sinus stimulation....

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The Use of Rigid C-Collars

The Journal of Wilderness and Environmental Medicine (WEMJ 2019; 30(4): 412e6) has a study on improvised cervical collars that was conducted by a group at the University of Utah. They used a model soft improvised C-Collar of a rolled up fleece, similar to a common model we use in the...

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Cooling for Heat Stroke

Cold water immersion is the gold standard treatment for heat stroke. How much should we worry about inducing hypothermia when we cool heat stroke patients with cold water immersion? This is a classic example of benefit versus risk. The benefit of rapidly cooling heat stroke is clear: it’s life-saving, while...

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Albuterol for HAPE

We no longer suggest the use of albuterol in the treatment of High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE). Although there are reports of beta-agonist use in HAPE treatment and the risks of use are low, no data support a benefit from albuterol in patients experiencing HAPE. Read the WMS Journal publication for more...

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Thrombolytics in Frostbite Treatment

Thrombolytics (clot-dissolving medications) have a role in the treatment of severe frostbite in restoring circulation after the injury has been thawed. This hospital based treatment is time sensitive, and the sooner the treatment is started, the better. Patients exhibiting thawed severe frostbite should be evacuated to definitive care as soon...

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Treatment for Drowning

Drowning is a hypoxic brain issue (requiring supplemental oxygenation administration on scene). The focus on treatment is to reverse hypoxia with A-B-C CPR (not C-A-B). Use rescue breathing and if available, supplemental oxygen. Remove any likely water and vomit from the airway as needed (likely from the stomach). Do not...

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